Basic pipelining and simple RISC processors
CISC: State-of-the-art computers in 1970s, e.g. IBM System/370 or VAX-11/780 were rack-based machines implemented with discrete logic.
VAX-11/780: complex instruction set, microcode, consisting of 304 instructions, 16 addressing modes, and more than 10 different instruction lengths.
- Hardware technology of the pre 80ies required minimal hardware and minimal memory size.
- Assembly language programming required high-level constructs at assembly language level.
- Idea of a semantic gap between computer architecture and HLL programs.
- CISC (complex instruction set computer) ISA (instruction set architecture)
- HLL (high-level language) machines