the amount of work that can be performed per cycle,
and the number of instructions needed to perform a task.
Today's general trend toward more complex designs is opposed by the wiring delay within the processor chip as main technological problem.
higher clock rates with subquarter-micron designs? on-chip interconnecting wires cause a significant portion of the delay time in circuits.
Especially global interconnects within a processor chip cause problems with higher clock rates.
Maintaining the integrity of a signal as it moves from one end of the chip to the other becomes more difficult.
Copper metallization is worth a 20 % to 30 % reduction in wiring delay.